The Planets


Mercury’s Successive Positions
Mercury’s successive positions during March of 2000. Each picture was taken from the same location, when the Sun was 10° below the horizon. The resulting digital manipulation was superposed on the single most photogenic sunset. Juan Carlos Casado

Mercury reaches superior conjunction (on the far side of the Sun as seen from Earth) on November 17, and is too deep in the solar glare to see for most of the month. On November’s first few days it may be visible with difficulty low in the east, about 30 minutes before sunrise.

Of the famous five naked-eye planets, Mercury can sometimes be the second brightest, outshining all stars, and can often be the planet closest to Earth – and yet it has been seen by remarkably few people! This is because Mercury, the innermost planet of the solar system, can never depart more than 28° from the Sun as seen from our point of view.

Mercury can never be seen more than roughly two hours before or after the Sun, so because of this it is not well known. The beautiful, and sometimes orange planet, can be amazingly prominent near greatest elongation at its few best apparitions of the year (there are many separate apparitions of Mercury in a year because the swift planet races back and forth between the morning and evening sides of the Sun).

To know when one of these favorable periods will occur (this month’s apparition is far from favorable) please consult this page at the beginning of each month. However, observers at mid-northern latitudes may follow the general rule that Mercury is best seen as an evening object sometime in late winter or early spring, and as a morning object in late summer or early autumn.

Finder map (early November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking east.


Venus is the brilliant “Morning Star”, rising about three and a half hours before the Sun and dominating the eastern sky until sunrise. On November 1, Venus appears 1.1° from Mars and blazes at a dazzling magnitude of -4.4. This makes Venus some 275 times brighter than Mars, gleaming at only magnitude +1.7.

The gap closes to only 0.8° by the following morning and then to 0.7° when the two planets appear closest on the 3rd. As the month progresses, Venus and Mars continue to stretch across the vast expanse of the constellation Virgo (the second largest constellation in the sky, after Hydra).

Venus passes about 0.4° from +3.6-magnitude Beta Virginis on November 6 and shines less than 0.2° from Eta Virginis on the morning of November 13. Then, on November 28, it slides 4° north of 1st-magnitude Spica.

Mars, moving slower relative to the background stars, makes its own close approach to Eta Virginis on the 21st. Finally, just before month’s end, November 30, Mars passes 1° south of the binary system Gamma Virginis.

Venus’ telescopic appearance changes dramatically during the month. On November 1, the planet’s disk spans 23” and appears 53-percent lit; by the 30th, the disk measures 18” across while the phase thickens to 66-percent sunlit.

Finder map (early November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.
Finder map (mid-November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.
Finder map (late November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.


A Small Portion of Acidalia Planitia
A small portion of Acidalia Planitia, a largely flat plain that is part of Mars’ vast northern lowlands. ESA / The Mars Express Team

Mars continues to flee ahead of Earth in orbit around the Sun. Nevertheless, our world is slowly gaining on the Red Planet, and, as we do so, Mars climbs higher each day into the southeastern sky before dawn.

On the mornings of November 2, 3 and 4, Mars is less than 1° apart from Venus. By the 30th, the two worlds will have drifted apart from each other (as seen from Earth); the line connecting Mars and Venus lengthens then to more than 14°.

Mars lies about 195 million miles (314 million kilometers) from Earth around mid-month. Coupled with the planet’s small physical size, this large distance renders the orange-gold world tiny in the eyepiece, just 4.5” across. Only the largest backyard telescopes will show surface features with any clarity.

Under good conditions, an amateur telescope will show Mars’ polar ice caps and the main dark areas. These were once thought to be seas but now are known to be regions where winds in the tenuous atmosphere have blown away the red, dusty material that covers most of the planet, exposing the darker layers below.

The two most prominent dark surface markings are the Syrtis Major in the equatorial region of the planet and Acidalia Planitia in the north; the Syrtis Major is V-shaped, and much the easiest to see. Do not expect to be able to make out a lot on Mars the first time you look through your telescope. Observing takes lots of practice, and you will find that many hours of experience will make an enormous difference to what you can make out.

Finder map (early November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.
Finder map (mid-November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.
Finder map (late November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.


The Galilean Moons
The four Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. NASA / JPL / DLR

Jupiter rises in the east around 2 A.M. local time on November 1, 40 minutes before Venus and Mars. Before dawn it stands 30° high in the southeast, among the stars of Leo the Lion. By the 30th, the gas giant pokes above the horizon two hours earlier and is 45° high at the first hint of twilight.

In a telescope, Jupiter’s belts, zones, spots, rifts, and other markings invite night after night of study. The planet’s four Galilean moons – Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto – are also easy targets for beginners with small telescopes. These moons orbit Jupiter so quickly, that their motion can be seen almost minute by minute if they are next to the planet or to each other.

This Jupiter’s Moons diagram shows where they lie with respect to the planet at any time and date this month (at midnight Universal Time). To convert your time and date to Universal Time for using the chart, subtract the following hours: EST, 5; CST, 6; MST, 7; PST, 8; Alaska, 9; or Hawaii, 10. The result is on the date before the Universal Time date given. Watch out – to match the view through a telescope, turn the diagram with north at the bottom. If you use binoculars, north should be at the top.

Have you ever looked for Ganymede and Callisto with your unaided eye? The two moons are within reach at their eastern and western elongations from Jupiter, if you have superb vision. It helps to block Jupiter with the edge of a building or tree limb. The diagram suggests when to try.

Finder map (early November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.
Finder map (mid-November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.
Finder map (late November) – 30 minutes before sunrise, looking southeast.


Saturn and Six of its Moons
Pictured above, Saturn and six of its moons. Titan appears at the lower left and continuing to the right are Mimas, Tethys, Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. Rafael Defavari

Saturn disappears behind the Sun this month. For the first two weeks of November, you can still catch it just above the southwestern horizon at mid-twilight, 45 minutes after sunset. Thereafter it departs – Saturn passes behind the Sun from our perspective November 29.

The ringed planet shines at magnitude +0.5 and should show up with the naked eye for observers with a haze-free and unobstructed horizon. If you cannot spy it right away, binoculars will bring it into view. Do not confuse Saturn with Beta Scorpii, about 1° to the south, or with twinkling Antares 9° to the southeast.

Saturn orbits the Sun at an average distance of 9.6 astronomical units (AU); its distance from the Earth varies from about 8.5 AU to 10.5 AU. It takes Saturn nearly 30 Earth years to complete one revolution around the Sun, so a year on Saturn is 30 times longer than a year on Earth.

Like all planets, Saturn rotates on its axis – an imaginary line running through a planet from its north pole to its south pole. In some planets, the axis is almost vertical, or upright, in relation to the planet’s orbit. But in Saturn, the axis is tilted at 26.73°, causing different parts of the planet to lean closer to the Sun.

The same thing occurs on Earth and brings about the regular changes in the weather we call the seasons. Because Saturn takes a lot longer to orbit the Sun, its seasons last for 7.5 years.

Finder map (early November) – 30 minutes after sunset, looking southwest.
Finder map (mid-November) – 30 minutes after sunset, looking southwest.


Uranus rises about two hours after Neptune and stands 30° above the eastern horizon shortly after evening twilight fades. It appears against the background of Pisces the Fish, less than 2° south of 4th-magnitude Epsilon Piscium.

You will have an easier time viewing Uranus if you wait until midevening when it climbs twice as high in the south. Use the Great Square of Pegasus as a guide. Start by drawing an imaginary line from Beta to Gamma Pegasi, the top right corner and bottom left corner of the asterism, respectively, on November evenings. Then continue the line and head slightly left to pick up Epsilon Piscium.

Uranus is not one of the five classic naked-eye planets, but observers under dark skies should still be able to glimpse the first “discovered” planet without optical aid. It remains at magnitude +5.7 throughout all of November.

If you use a telescope at high magnification, on a night with good seeing conditions, Uranus appears as a tiny featureless disk with a pale greenish hue. The planet’s 27 known natural satellites are beyond easy reach of most amateur telescopes, for visual observations.

However, if you are equipped with one of the very large-aperture telescopes that have become common nowadays you will find it possible to glimpse the largest and brightest of the moons. Titania (magnitude +13.9) and Oberon (magnitude +14.1) will be the easiest because they attain the greatest separation from the glare of the planet.

Finder map – field width 15°, stars to magnitude +8.


Neptune from Voyager2
Bluish Neptune, the solar system’s outermost gas giant, is a dynamic planet with several large, dark spots reminiscent of Jupiter’s hurricane-like storms. NASA / JPL / Voyager 2

Uranus’ outer neighbor, Neptune, stands high in the south as soon as darkness falls this month. Look for it in Aquarius the Water-Bearer, roughly one-third of the way from 5th-magnitude Sigma Aquarii to 4th-magnitude Lambda. Try to catch a view before 8 P.M. local time, because Neptune becomes harder to see as its altitude declines. The distant planet sets by midnight.

Neptune glows at magnitude +7.9, bringing it within range of binoculars. It is much easier to see, however, if you mount the binoculars on a tripod or use a small telescope. The planet’s blue-gray disk appears 2.5” across, just big enough to be resolved under good conditions.

The atmospheric composition of Neptune is similar to that of Uranus. Compared to Uranus, Neptune appears bluer, presumably due to a higher concentration of methane (around 3-percent) in the atmosphere.

Neptune’s Great Dark Spot was first observed by Voyager 2 in the Southern Hemisphere in 1989. This storm disappeared by the time the Hubble Space Telescope observed Neptune in 1994, but a new one had formed in the planet’s Northern Hemisphere by 1995.

Neptune’s interior consists of hydrogen, water, and a small (Earth-sized) core of rock and iron. The giant planet releases internal energy, driving supersonic winds to speeds of over 1,200 miles (2,000 kilometers) per hour. The exact source of the released energy is unclear, but it does not appear to be a remnant from the formation of the planet.

Finder map – field width 15°, stars to magnitude +8.5.


Pluto’s Tartarus Dorsa Region
A high-resolution, enhanced-color image of Pluto’s Tartarus Dorsa mountainous region. Shadows near the terminator, the line between Pluto’s dim day and night, emphasize a rough, scaly texture. NASA / JHUAPL / SWRI

Pluto wanders far from the ecliptic, where the major planets reside. It lies northeast of the Teapot asterism in Sagittarius, following a number of years in Ophiuchus and Serpens. Look for it as soon as full darkness falls, remarkably close to +3.5-magnitude Xi2 Sagittarii.

The dwarf planet begins the month 20’ (two-thirds the diameter of the Full Moon) west of this star and then moves point-blank toward it. On the evenings of November 16 and 17, Pluto skirts just 1.1’ north of Xi2 – this is about twice the angular separation between the components of Albireo, one of the best double stars in the sky.

At magnitude +14.2, Pluto is hard to spot visually even under the best conditions. You will likely need at least a 10-inch scope, although a smaller telescope with a CCD camera attached will also work. Take images a few nights apart, and Pluto’s motion relative to the background stars will betray its location.

On July 14 this year, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft has reached its closest point to Pluto, about 7,750 miles (12,472 kilometers) above the surface. The probe sent back breathtaking photographs of Pluto in high resolutions, which reveal a varied surface with frozen plains and ice mountains. Rising to an estimated 11,000 feet (3,500 meters) the mountains are likely composed of water ice. They are also likely young, with an estimated age of 100 million years or so.

After passing by Pluto, New Horizons now continues further into the Kuiper Belt. Its target is 2014 MU69, an icy object situated 43.3 astronomical units from the Sun.

Astronomers know little about 2014 MU69, other than it is an incredibly dim +25.6-magnitude blip that takes about 293 years to orbit once around Sol. Its diameter is estimated to be about 30 miles (45 kilometers) across, roughly ten times the size of a typical comet.

Coarse finder map – field width 10°, stars to magnitude +8.5.
Fine finder map – field width 1°, stars to magnitude +14.5.

The Deep Sky

Star Cluster M34
Easy to appreciate in binoculars or small telescopes, M34 lies some 1,400 light years away in the constellation Perseus. Bob Franke

Perseus, a son of Zeus, is a member of autumn’s “royal family”, which also includes Andromeda, Cassiopeia and Cepheus. According to the popular legend, Perseus rescued the beautiful maiden Andromeda, chained to a rock as a sacrifice to Cetus the sea monster. For his valor, Perseus was placed among the stars for eternity.

Skywatchers in the Northern Hemisphere see Perseus standing high in the autumn sky, in a sparkling region of the Milky Way. The constellation hosts a magnificent array of deep sky wonders, with many fine open star clusters and nebulae.

However, despite this rich assortment of deep sky objects, including the famous Double Cluster, only two objects in Perseus – the open cluster M34 and the planetary nebula M76 – are logged in the famous catalog of 18th-century French comet hunter Charles Messier.

M34, this month’s deep sky highlight, is easy to find with binoculars and can be glimpsed with the naked eye under ideal sky conditions. The open cluster makes an isosceles triangle with Kappa Persei and Beta Persei, or Algol, the remarkable eclipsing binary star whose brightness fades for a few hours every 2.87 days.

Glowing at magnitude +5.5, M34 holds well over 60 stars within its gravitational grip. About a dozen of these suns shine brighter than 9th magnitude and can be resolved with 7×35 binoculars; several are white giants. What looks like the brightest star of the cluster shines at magnitude +7.3, but this star is in the foreground, not a true cluster member. One of the brightest true members is a double star known as Struve 44, whose 8.4- and 9.1-magnitude components are separated by 1.4”.

M34 spreads out over an area roughly 35’ across, a bit bigger than the Full Moon. It has a diameter of about 10 light years and its stars rotate at rates that are midway between those in the younger Pleiades Cluster (100 million years old) and the older Hyades Cluster (600 million years old).

This is thought to be the result of rotational braking whose effect on stellar rotation rates becomes more pronounced with age. Such braking is believed to be due to angular momentum loss via magnetic coupling to the chromosphere (i.e. the star’s atmosphere outside the bright photosphere).

Finder map – field width 15°, stars to magnitude +8.


Vesta’s South Pole
Vesta shows light and dark features, hills, craters and cliffs, much like our Moon. The Dawn spacecraft took this image of the asteroid’s south pole from a distance of about 1,700 miles (2,700 kilometers). NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA / MPS / DLR / IDA

Asteroid 4 Vesta is the second-most-massive object in the asteroid belt after the dwarf planet Ceres, surviving from the earliest phases of solar system history. It formed at a time when the asteroid belt was much more massive than it is today and was witness to its dramatic evolution, where planetary embryos were formed and lost, and where the collisional environment shifted from accretional to destructive.

In spite of being a bit too small, Vesta could easily be considered the sixth Earth-like planet, in addition to Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Shortly after its formation more than 4 billion years ago, molten lava penetrated the surface, cooled again, and has not changed since. In the various high-resolution images from NASA’s Dawn spacecraft we see one of the oldest surfaces in the solar system.

In contrast, the two asteroids visited by the Galileo probe, Ida and Gaspra, were broken off larger bodies by collisions only several hundred million yeas ago; they are more indicative of the geological present in the asteroid belt.

Even though Vesta reached opposition and peak visibility in late September, it still shines at 7th-magnitude this month and remains well placed for Northern Hemisphere observers. You can find it high in the south during midevening, within easy reach of binoculars or a 4-inch telescope.

Your signpost to Vesta is magnitude +3.5 Iota Ceti, which itself lies 11° northwest (to the upper right) of 2nd-magnitude Beta Ceti. The asteroid spends the month within a couple of degrees of Iota, sliding from southeast to northeast of the star. Avoid trying for Vesta on November 20 and 21, when the waxing gibbous Moon will be just 10° away.

Finder map – field width 15°, stars to magnitude +8.5.


Comet C/2013 US10 Catalina
C/2013 US10 Catalina imaged on September 11, 2015. The comet should become a naked eye object sometime in late November. Damian Peach

C/2013 US10 Catalina was discovered on October 31, 2013, using the 27-inch (0.68 meter) telescope at the Catalina Sky Survey facility near Tucson, Arizona. Initially categorized as a very large near-Earth asteroid (hence its unusual “US10” designation), new observations soon indicated that US10 Catalina was, in fact, a long-period comet from the distant Oort Cloud.

For much of 2015, the comet remained the province of Southern Hemisphere observers. In late July and early August it was slightly brighter than 8th-magnitude, and became a south circumpolar object. Throughout September and October it reached magnitude +6.5, just shy of naked eye visibility.

Now, C/2013 US10 Catalina heads towards perihelion, 0.82 astronomical units from the Sun on November 15. As it swings around, the Sun’s gravity will catapult it into view for Northern Hemisphere skywatchers. Throughout most of the month, however, the comet will not be readily observable since it will lie very close to the Sun.

Your first opportunity to view C/2013 US10 comes around November 23, when it just clears the southeastern horizon by the onset of morning twilight. The comet then lies in Virgo, near that constellation’s border with Libra. Use magnitude +4.5 Lambda Virginis as a guide; Catalina passes just 0.1° east of this star on the morning of November 27.

Astronomers predict Comet Catalina could reach 5th magnitude around that time, bringing it within naked eye visibility. On the other hand, its brightness evolution has stopped in September, so nothing is certain.

Finder map – field width 25°, stars to magnitude +7.5.

The PanSTARRS Facility
The PanSTARRS PS1 and PS2 telescopes, located at the summit of Maui’s Haleakala volcano. Comet C/2014 S2 was discovered from this facility on September 22, 2014. PS1 Science Consortium / University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy

Comet PanSTARRS (C/2014 S2) should show up nicely through a 4-inch telescope under a country sky. Glowing around 9th magnitude and with a predicted diameter of five arcminutes, this visitor from the solar system’s icy depths likely will appear similar in brightness and size to some of the brighter elliptical galaxies in the Messier catalog.

The comet belongs to both the evening and morning skies this month because it treks just south of Polaris. Because the North Star never sets for observers north of the equator, C/2014 S2 remains visible all night. To see it best, try to sidestep moonlight. In early November, dark skies come in early to mid-evening before the Moon rises. During the month’s second half, the waxing Moon demands a switch to predawn hours.

As November begins, PanSTARRS appears 15° south of Polaris and just 15’ away from 5th-magnitude Eta Ursae Minoris, the faintest star of the Little Dipper’s seven. Around mid-month, the comet crosses into neighboring Draco, another circumpolar constellation (that is, never setting) for many observers in the Northern Hemisphere.

By month’s end, PanSTARRS skims past Zeta Draconis, also known as Nodus III (the third of the twists or “nodes” in the tail of the Dragon). It will continue to move south from this point, getting slightly brighter as it heads toward its mid-December perihelion.

Finder map – field width 25°, stars to magnitude +7.5.

Short-period comet 22P/Kopff was discovered photographically more than a hundred years ago, in August 1906. The comet was missed on its 1912 return, but was recovered in 1919 and recorded ever since. Its orbit has been slightly modified by passages close to Jupiter in 1942 and 1954, so that it currently takes 6.40 years to round the Sun (compared with 6.54 years early in the 20th century).

22P/Kopff was last seen in 2009, when it reached 10th-magnitude and developed a coma about 3’ across. At this year’s return, the comet passed perihelion on October 25 and throughout November is expected to glow around magnitude +9.5.

Comet Kopff begins the month in southeastern Ophiuchus, 3° northeast of 3rd-magnitude Theta Ophiuchi. From there, it heads east through Sagittarius, passing 15’ south of the Trifid Nebula (M20) on the evening of November 11, and 45’ north of the globular star cluster M22 on November 21.

Make sure the comet is near the top of your observing list because it sinks quickly into the southwestern horizon haze after darkness falls. Once you track it down, boost your telescope’s power past 100x to darken the sky further and increase the contrast.

Finder map – field width 30°, stars to magnitude +7.


Taurid Fireball
A Taurid fireball from the 2005 shower, over Toyama, Japan. The brightest star is Sirius and Orion is near upper center. Hiroyuki Iida / NASA

A great number of particles, called meteoroids, orbit the Sun. When the Earth passes through one of these meteoroid groups, its atmosphere sweeps many of them up. The particles then become meteors, as they hurtle to a swift, fiery destruction.

The visible effect comes not from the particle itself but from the trail of ionized air that the rapidly vaporizing particle creates. The vast majority of these projectiles from space are, fortunately for us, little bigger than grains of sand.

Each year, from mid-September to late November, the Earth plows through the meteoroid cloud left behind by periodic comet 2P/Encke and this produces the Taurid shower. There are two radiants to this stream, one 8° north of the other. The southern radiant peaks before dawn on October 10, and its northern cousin on November 12. Both radiants first appear in Cetus, drift across Aries, and move into Taurus in late October.

Taurid meteors are visible most of the night, but rates tend to be low – you should see about five shooting stars per hour, with numbers increasing after midnight. However, Taurids are slow moving and bright, which makes the display more impressive than their low numbers might suggest. The shower also produces occasional fireballs with spectacular trains, so it does not hurt to keep an eye on it.

Map – Taurids radiant position.

The Leonid Meteor Storm of 1833
The Leonid Meteor Storm of 1833, when it was said that meteors “rained down like snowflakes”. Other major Leonid storms were those of 1866, 1966, 1998 and 2001. Engraving by Adolf Vollmy

The Leonids are renowned for their periodic storms – outbursts of very high activity lasting less than an hour but during which the observed meteor rate climbs to thousands per minute.

In recent years, however, rates for the Leonids have declined significantly from the storm levels of 2001 and 2002, so you may see only 10 to 15 meteors per hour at the peak on Wednesday morning, November 18. Reduced numbers can be seen for several days before and after the maximum, from November 6 to November 30.

No matter how the shower performs, the best time to watch is from 1 or 2 A.M. local time until the first light of dawn. This is when Leo has risen above the horizon and is climbing high in the eastern sky. The waxing crescent Moon sets around 10 P.M. local time on the night of the maximum, leaving the favored morning hours free from its glare.

The shower’s apparent radiant point is within the Sickle of Leo at right ascension 10h 12m, declination +22°. This is not necessarily where to watch – the best direction to watch is simply the darkest part of your sky, perhaps 40° to 60° from the radiant.

At the breakneck speed of 44 miles (70 kilometers) per second, Leonid meteors are extremely swift and some leave smoke trails that can last a number of seconds. Many Leonids are also bright, and appear to be green or blue in color as they disintegrate in the upper atmosphere.

Map – Leonids radiant position.

Some meteors do not belong to any known shower. These are the sporadic meteors, caused by random bits of comet debris spread throughout the inner solar system. They appear randomly across the sky all year long.

In this month’s night sky, careful observers can expect around twelve sporadics per hour during the morning hours and three during the dark evening.

Observing Aids

Northern Hemisphere’s Sky – This map portrays the sky as seen near 40° north latitude at 8 P.M. local time in early November and 7 P.M. in late November.

Southern Hemisphere’s Sky – This map is plotted for 35° south latitude. It shows the sky at 9 P.M. local time in early November and 8 P.M. in late November.

Visibility of the Planets – The table provides general information about the visibility of the planets during the current month.

Phases of the Moon – This Moon Phase Calendar shows the Moon’s phase for every day in November.

Jupiter’s Moons – The diagram shows the positions of Galilean satellites on each day in November at midnight.

Sky Events

November 1 – 2 A.M. EDT: Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States.

November 3 – 7:24 A.M. EST: Last Quarter Moon. 11 A.M. EST: Venus is 0.7° south of Mars.

November 6 – 11 A.M. EST: The Moon is 2° south of Jupiter. 11 P.M. EST: Asteroid 39 Laetitia is at opposition.

November 7 – 5 A.M. EST: The Moon is 1.8° south of Mars. 9 A.M. EST: The Moon is 1.2° south of Venus. 4:49 P.M. EST: The Moon is at apogee, the point in its orbit when it is farthest from Earth.

November 11 – 12:47 P.M. EST: New Moon.

November 12 – 5 A.M. EST: The Northern Taurid meteor shower is at peak activity. 8 P.M. EST: The Moon is 3° north of Saturn.

November 17 – 10 A.M. EST: Mercury is in superior conjunction with the Sun. 11 A.M. EST: Asteroid 4 Vesta is stationary.

November 18 – 5 A.M. EST: The Leonid meteor shower is at peak activity. 4 P.M. EST: Neptune is stationary.

November 19 – 1:27 A.M. EST: First Quarter Moon. 9 P.M. EST: The Moon is 3° north of Neptune.

November 20 – 4 P.M. EST: Asteroid 192 Nausikaa is at opposition.

November 22 – 2 P.M. EST: The Moon is 0.9° south of Uranus.

November 23 – 3:07 P.M. EST: The Moon is at perigee, the point in its orbit when it is nearest to Earth.

November 25 – 5:44 P.M. EST: Full Moon.

November 26 – 5 A.M. EST: The Moon is 0.7° north of Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri).

November 28 – 11 A.M. EST: Venus is 4° north of Spica (Alpha Virginis).

November 29 – 7 P.M. EST: Saturn is in conjunction with the Sun.

The information provided on this page is accurate for the world’s mid-northern latitudes. Finder maps for the five naked eye planets are plotted for 40° north latitude, but can also be used from other latitudes close to 40° north. Except the two all-sky maps, all other maps can be used no matter the latitude. Local time (local daylight time during summer) represents the time of the reader.